Mongolia is one of the Asian countries located in the Eastern region. It is bordered by both giants: Russia and China and is separated from Kazakhstan by only 36 kilometres wide piece of (Chinese) land. Mongolia covers a total area of 1.56 million square kilometres and has a population of only around 3 million people, showing the extremely sparse population.
The official language is Mongolian and the nation also has a small minority ethnic group of Kazakhs within the borders. Interesting fact about the population is that around one third lives a nomadic life with strong horse culture. Majority of Mongolian people are also Buddhists.
The capital city and also the largest one is Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator).
This city is also an urban area where almost the half of the entire Mongolian population is situated. Ulaanbaatar is also the economic and financial heart of Mongolia as well as cultural and educational hub.
The country itself is a developing one with middle income economy and strong focus on agriculture and recently listed as emerging market. Despite all those, still a significant part of population lives under the poverty line.
Several different nomadic empires have had power over the territory during the past. Those nomadic tribes were actually the reason why the Great Wall of China was constructed – in order to protect China from them. The nomadic empires include the Xiongnu, Xianbei or the Rouran empires.
The Mongol Empire itself (where the current name of the country comes from) was then founded by a tribe leader Genghis Khan in 1206 and this era was followed by an extensive territory stretch. That all changed in the 14th century with the Chinese invasion. The Mongolian People’s Republic was established in 1924 and eventually the current new constitution came in 1992.
The vast Mongolian territory is mostly covered by steppe or grasslands representing arable land and mountains. The southern part then represents the Gobi Desert. The landscape is unique and wildly beautiful.
Hiking, camping or horse trekking are thus perfect outdoor activities while visiting Mongolia. The nomadic way of living of locals is a fascinating experience and last but not least, their genuine hospitality is refreshing and lovable.